Personality Disorders: Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatments, FAQ’sEmaan Shahid
WHAT ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS?
Personality Disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by unhealthy patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. People with personality disorder believe that their way of thinking and behaving is completely normal. They have a view of world that is quite different than others, as a result, they find it difficult to participate in social, educational, and family activities.
A personality disorder can affect how you manage your relationships, and how you cope with life. Personality disorders may be triggered by genetic or environmental influences, and most prominently childhood trauma.
WHAT ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS?
- Paranoid Personality Disorder
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Schizotypal Personality disorder
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Dependent Personality Disorder
- Obsessive Personality Disorder
WHAT ARE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PERSONALITY DISORDER:
- Wide mood swings and stormy relationships.
- Suspicion and mistrust of others.
- Need for instant gratification.
- Social isolation.
- Alcohol abuse.
- Risky behavior such as risky driving, gambling sprees, or illegal drug use.
- Feeling misunderstood and neglected.
- Intense episodes of anxiety and depression.
- Feelings of self-hate.
- Inappropriate anger and antagonistic behavior.
- Difficulty controlling emotions.
HOW PERSONALITY DISORDERS ARE DIAGNOSED:
A psychiatrist will ask about feelings, behavior patterns, and relationships. He will ask questions about symptoms, their severity, how they impact daily life. Thoughts of suicide, self-injury or harming others will also be examined.
Psychiatrists use specially designed tools to evaluate a person. The psychiatrist will base his diagnosis on the symptoms and his observation of person’s attitude and behavior.
HOW PERSONALITY DISORDERS ARE TREATED:
Many people with personality disorders can function normally in the society, and as a result, many go untreated. There are variety of treatment options that can help you if you experience personality disorder.
- Psychotherapy is the main treatment for personality disorder. It focuses on evaluating faulty thinking patterns, and teaching new thinking patterns. It also improves interpersonal skills. Psychotherapy is delivered by trained professional.
- Care program approach is a way of ensuring that you receive the right treatment for your needs. It includes an assessment of your health, a care plan, the appointment of a care coordinator.
- Dialectical behavior therapy is another treatment option for personality disorder. The goal of dialectical behavior therapy is to introduce validation and dialectic concepts. Validation is to accept that your emotions are real and acceptable.
- Mentalization therapy is a long term psychotherapy and it is based on the concept that people with personality disorder have a poor capacity to mentalize.
It includes examining your own thoughts and beliefs, and assessing whether they’re realistic and useful. Mentalization therapy is to recognize that other people have their own thoughts and your interpretation of other people’s mental states may not be necessarily correct.
- Therapeutic communities are structured environment where people of complex psychological conditions interact. These communities are to help people with a history of self-harming.
- Creative therapies aim to help people who find it hard to express their feelings. This includes art, dance, or music therapy.
MEDICATIONS FOR TREATING PERSONALITY DISORDER:
- Second generation antipsychotics (olanzapine)
- Mood-stabilizers (valproate, lamotrigine)
- Omega-3 fatty acids.
- Hypnotics and sedatives.
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF PERSONALITY DISORDER:
If personality disorders are left untreated, it can result in great personal and social cost, including hospitalizations, unhappiness, and imprisonment. Such people are at greater risk of alcohol abuse, and suicide.
BEST WAY TO PREVENT PERSONALITY DISORDER:
- Antipsychotic medication can suppress the initial symptoms.
- Exercise can prevent the onset of personality disorder.
- Positive behavior should be reinforced.
- Keeping schedules stable.
COMPARISON BETWEEN BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND BIPOLAR DISORDER
|It is a personality disorder characterized by fundamental difference between individual and other people.||It is a mood disorder characterized by the individuals relationship with emotion.|
|Prevalence is 1.6% of adults.||Prevalence is 2.6% of adults.|
|Average age of onset: N/A||Average age of onset: 25 years|
Personality disorder are of three types:
Mood disorders are of two types:
COMPARISON BETWEEN PERSONALITY DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA
It does not include hallucinations and delusions.
It includes hallucinations and delusions.
It co-occurs with mood disorder.
It does not co-occurs with mood disorder.
FAQ’s (Frequently Asked Questions):
WHICH PERSONALITY DISORDER IS MOST PAINFUL?
Borderline personality disorder is the most painful and one of the most common personality disorder.
HOW TO HELP SOMEONE WITH PERSONALITY DISORDER?
Be patient with the person and encourage him to learn new coping skills, emotion regulation, and to gain additional social support.
WHAT PERCENT OF POPULATION IS SUFFERING FROM PERSONALITY DISORDER?
Almost 10 to 13 percent of the world’s population is suffering from personality disorder. Most of the personality disorder begins in teen age.
HOW CAN I HELP MYSELF IF I AM SUFFERING FROM PERSONALITY DISORDER?
- If you are feeling angry, you can read a newspaper, you can do some vigorous exercise, or you can do a practical activity like gardening.
- If you are feeling lonely, you can write all negative feelings on a piece of paper and tear it up, or cuddle a pet.
- If you are feeling anxious, take a warm bath, this can create a soothing atmosphere.
- If you are feeling spaced out, drink a class of cold water or chew a piece of ginger.
- For a longer term you can talk to someone, you can look after your physical health or find specialist support.
CAN MARIJUANA USE CAUSE PERSONALITY DISORDER?
People with personality disorder have high rate of substance abuse, but Marijuana does not cause personality disorder.
One of the complication of marijuana consumption is paranoia, in personality disorder patients this complication is more severe. About 60% of people with personality disorder have used marijuana.